Life after prison in New York state
With each criminal conviction, the state of New York matter-of-factly tells the defendants how long they will spend behind bars. Hidden from view, in the “fine print,” is a long list of additional penalties attached to these convictions.
Only upon leaving prison and while attempting to rebuild their lives do offenders experience, firsthand, how these non-prison “collateral consequences” limit or deny their basic rights to housing, food stamps, education, voting, employment, child custody and much more.
A 2018 study conducted by the Prison Policy Initiative found that “formally incarcerated people are unemployed at a rate of over 27% –higher than the total U.S. unemployment rate during any historical period, including the Great Depression. … Exclusionary policies and practices are responsible for these market inequities.”
The study concludes: “A prison sentence should not be a perpetual punishment. … States should implement automation record expungement procedures and reform their licensing practices so as to eliminate the automatic rejection of people with felony convictions.”
“The stigma of incarceration and disconnection from the workforce,” according to a Council of State Governments report, “are among the challenges people face when trying to find a job after release from prison or jail. People who have been incarcerated earn 40 percent less annually than they had earned prior to incarceration.”
Researchers at the Council of State Governments have prepared a list of 1,252 separate “collateral consequences” embedded in New York state statutes and regulations — waiting to snare persons convicted of a crime. Some consequences kick in automatically. Others are applied on a case-by-case basis. Some have a set duration, others are indefinite.
Here are examples of how New York’s post-prison penalties make the prison-to-society transition more difficult for ex-offenders.
¯ “Deny/suspend/revoke milk dealer license.” A discretionary penaty with an indefinite duration for conviction of a felony.
¯ “Ineligible for license as a junk dealer.” A mandatory penalty with an indefinite duration for conviction of crimes involving fraud, dishonesty, misrepresentation or money laundering.
¯ “Deny hairdressing/cosmetology license (child support arrears).” A discretionary penalty with a conditional duration for conviction of child support offenses.
¯ “Ineligible for tenancy in public housing authority project.” A discretionary penalty with an indefinite duration for conviction of a felony or misdemeanor.
¯ “Restrict internet use.” A mandatory penalty with an indefinite duration for conviction of sex offenses.
¯ “Ineligible for public assistance.” A mandatory penalty with a time-limited duration for conviction of crimes involving fraud, dishonesty, misrepresentation or money laundering.
Because “One out of five working Americans needs a license to work while one in three American adults has a criminal record,” the Institute for Justice encourages state lawmakers to repeal needless licenses, scale back anti-competitive licensing laws and strengthen the rights of people with a criminal record to gain meaningful employment.
To do so, the institute has prepared, for state adoption, a model legislation titled “Collateral Consequences in Occupational Licensing Act.” And, to date, at least 18 states — but not New York state — have reformed their occupational licensing laws to reduce entry barriers for those with a criminal record.
However, according to the Collateral Consequences Resource Center’s Restoration of Rights Project, a nonprofit organization that tracks legal restrictions on people with a criminal record, New York state has taken steps to remove employment barriers for ex-offenders:
¯ A general non-discrimination law prohibits discrimination in employment and licensing based on a conviction.
¯ Employment denial must be based on a direct relationship and unreasonable risk to property or safety.
¯ By executive order, public employers may not inquire into an applicant’s prior convictions until an initial hiring decision is made.
¯ In New York City under the Fair Chance Act, both public and private employers may not inquire regarding an applicant’s criminal record until an initial offer is made.
When state legislatures erect legal barriers that make life after prison difficult, if not impossible, they are setting people with a criminal record up for failure — and a trip back to prison.
Ex-offenders have a personal responsibility to make the lifestyle changes needed to successfully re-enter society. New York state legislators also have a responsibility to give wrongdoers the opportunity to make these changes and to become productive, law-abiding citizens.
Ronald Fraser, Ph.D., lives in Colden and writes on public policy issues for the DKT Liberty Project, a Washington-based civil liberties organization. Write him at firstname.lastname@example.org.